Book of the Dead of Taysnakht, daughter of Taymes

The funerary cortege of Taysnakht – Chapters 1-15
At the beginning of the papyrus is the scene showing the transport of the deceased’s body and her grave-goods. The coffin is loaded onto a boat to be ferried across the Nile to the necropolis. The grave-goods include a container for canopic jars. The priests are carrying and cleansing furniture and victuals. After reaching the tomb, the mummy is ritually purified and revived in front of the funerary chapel, which is surmounted by a small pyramid.
Adoration of the sun – Chapters 15-16
In four registers placed one above the other we see several scenes, including libation in front of the deceased, four pairs of baboons adoring the rising sun, the goddesses of the East and West adoring the setting sun, and the worshipping of the boat of the sun-god Re. These scenes encompass the whole life-cycle of the sun, symbolizing rebirth. They are accompanied by a hymn to the sun-god.
The Osirian legend – Chapter 17
The deceased retraces the events narrated in the mysteries of Osiris, including his resurrection in company of the celestial gods – a prelude to the regeneration of the deceased’s own soul in the netherworld – and his transfiguration and identification with the sun-god Re. The stages in the struggle between Horus and Seth are also retraced. Taysnakht herself is depicted as she fights the evil god Seth, who appears under several forms: a crocodile, a snake, a wild donkey, and a scorpion.
The deceased confronts the gods of the netherworld, Chapters 145-147
A long sequence of columns illustrated by vignettes takes us through the succession of obstacles faced by the soul in its progress towards rebirth. Funerary deities, guardian gods, heralds and gatekeepers bar the deceased's way. She needs to know and list their names to be able to address them and exercise the magical power derived from the speaking of the name.
Psychostasia – Chapter 125
One of the best-known vignettes in the Book of the Dead is that of the weighing of the heart (“psychostasia”) in the tribunal of the Double Truth, in the presence of Osiris and other gods of the netherworld. The heart of the deceased is placed on one pan of a pair of scales, a feather on the other pan. The feather symbolizes the goddess Maat, protector of justice and the cosmic order. A light and pure heart will grant the deceased a happy passage into the netherworld and a serene eternal life in the Fields of Iaru; should the heart turn out to be heavy, that is, evil, the monster Ammit (the Devourer) will annihilate the soul for eternity.
The deceased in front of Osiris – Chapter 148
In a room whose roof is supported by columns, Taysnakht, dressed in a white tunic with long fringed sleeves, worships Osiris, who is mummiform, falcon-headed, and wears the atef crown. The god is hugged by the goddess Imentet, personification of the West. Behind this scene, arranged in four registers, are the seven sacred cows and the black bull (a symbol of regeneration), the four oars with the wedjat eye (to facilitate navigation in the sky and the netherworld), and the four triads of deities who protect the deceased and ferry her across.
Life in the Fields of Iaru – Chapter 110
Accompanied by Thoth, the deceased arrives in front of the three guardian deities of the kingdom of the netherworld. Having passed the threshold, the soul travels on to the Fields on a boat laden with offerings. The lower register illustrates the stages of cultivation. The scene symbolizes the nourishment needed by the body and the soul for their regeneration. Below are islands, canals, deities, and boats with staircases leading up to the celestial kingdom.

Cat. 1833 TPOP
Cyperus papyrus, paint, ink
35 x 865 cm
332–30 BCE
Hellenistic Period
Drovetti collection, 1824
Sala 12 Cornice 04
  • Fabretti, Ariodante, Francesco Rossi, Ridolfo Vittorio Lanzone, Regio Museo di Torino. Antichità Egizie (Cat. gen. dei musei di antichità e degli ogg. d’arte raccolti nelle gallerie e biblioteche del regno 1. Piemonte), vol. I, Torino 1882, p. 227
    Tipo=Opere biblioteca SottoTipo=Monografia o Opere Autore=Fabretti, Ariodante, Francesco Rossi, Ridolfo Vittorio Lanzone Titolo=Regio Museo di Torino. Antichità Egizie Sottotiolo= In= Collana=Cat. gen. dei musei di antichità e degli ogg. d’arte raccolti nelle gallerie e biblioteche del regno Opera=1. Piemonte Luogo=vol. I, Torino Anno=1882 Menzionato=p. 227 Illustrazione=
Museo Egizio